Collective Agreements And Individual Agreements
The United States Recognizes Collective Agreements   Horizontal and Vertical Collective Agreements The Collective Relations Act distinguishes horizontal collective agreements, i.e. occupational agreements that cover a group of workers identified for a particular occupation or job (. B, for example, an agreement for pilots) and vertical collective agreements, i.e.: Sectoral agreements governing workers` industrial and labour relations, set for all employees in a particular sector (. B for example, an agreement for the textile industry or the banking sector). In Article 12, the law gives priority to vertical agreements which stipulate that they enter into force after publication and denounce horizontal agreements, even if the minimum duration of these agreements is not respected. This priority assumes, of course, that an organization that has signed the horizontal contract that has been terminated is also a party to the new vertical agreement, because only if this is the case will the relevant principles in terms of the right to negotiate and the scope of collective agreements can be respected. This is generally the case, as many vertical agreements are signed by a large number of primary unions, which may include trade unions. To see conflict between collective agreements . An extremely important aspect is the limitation of the effectiveness of collective agreements in relation to the individual employment contract. Under Article 14, paragraph 1, employment contracts can always improve the terms set by the agreements, which means that they can never be considered absolutely binding standards for individual contracts. Individual autonomy can always improve the system of collective autonomy in favour of the worker. Unions are essentially organized on the model of economic activity.
After the Second World War and again in the 1990s, trade unions showed a tendency to merge within larger and larger organizations.  In 1997, the arts, information technology and media unions merged.